301 Redirect Sub Directory

Redirects and Sub-Directories for SEOs


A subdomain is also sometimes called an “add-on” domain, because it looks like this: subdomain.maindomain.com. An example would be shopping.yahoo.com, which is a subdomain of yahoo.com (technically, so is www, but most people don’t refer to it as a subdomain). This is usually treated as a completely different website by search engine, but they won’t normally consider interlinking as much of an issue as completely separate websites, since there is an acknowledgment they are related.
Subsite (aka subweb)
A subsite, also referred to as a subweb is a section of a website that focuses on a particular topic, function or theme. Many subsites coincide with a directory path although this is not required. They will often also have their own local navigation structure -if you create a subweb in FrontPage, for example, the automatic navigation links are restricted to the subweb. It’s not required, but it’s a common distinguishing factor between a subsite and a subdirectory, which is purely organizational in nature.
Nested Domain (aka Domain Forwarding)
A nested domain is a domain name that does not point to the root of an account. Typically, it points to a subdirectory or subsite, but it could also point to a single page. This is the same system as webhost offerings such as “web-forwarding” and so forth, where a domain name is pointed at a long, messy URL. It’s common for people who have sites (usually on free servers) that look like www.spots.ab.ca/~mcanerin, which by the way was my very first website (now defunct). Rather than making people type that, you would point www.mcanerin.net at it, or whatever. The difference is that it’s pointing to a directory or page, rather than an IP address, so it’s not a “pure” domain (whatever that means). This is achieved using a 301 or 302 (301 is better) redirect.


Sometimes you will have a large site that has discrete sections within it – such as country-specific areas. Sometimes you will want to run an advertising campaign and have a special domain name that resolves directly to a specific area or page within a website.

For example, a local newspaper to me, the Calgary Herald, has a domain called www.calgaryherald.com . However, the Calgary Herald was bought a few years ago by Canwest Mediaworks Publications, which also owns newspapers in all the major Canadian cities, and a large number of smaller ones. CanWest owns the very easy to remember domain www.canada.com . Now, when they bought the Calgary Herald, they wanted to keep it’s branding (including the website domain) but bring the newspaper under the canada.com super domain – preferably without losing the branding or links that the calgaryherald.com had acquired. So they created a subdirectory under canada.com called www.canada.com/calgary/calgaryherald/ and put the newspaper there.

If you are on this page, this is scenario probably similar to one you are thinking about – creating a subdirectory (with it’s own domain) under your main site. There are pros and cons to this.

Cons: It’s not considered to be a separate domain, therefore links will be treated as internal links, rather than cross-domain links. This is good because they “flow” more easily, but bad because they are often worth less. Sometimes it’s better to set up a sub-domain or add-on domain (i.e. calgaryherald.canada.com) in order to maximize the PR benefits of the mini-site.

Pros: This allows you to easily use a common CMS for all the sites, since they are sub-directories, not different domains. You are also able to take advantage of branding from the supersite. Also, if there is a lot of likely cross-linking between the sites, trying to keep them separate is not only usually a waste of time, it can get one or more of the sites penalized because it looks like an artificial attempt at manipulating a linking scheme. Let’s face it, if you are going to be linking heavily between the two because they are related, why are you trying to make it look as if they are not (which is what separate sites looks like)? Another pro is that all the links coming into the nested domains pass PR to the rest of the site easily.

Separate Domain, Subdomain, or Subsite/Nested Domain?

Rule of Thumb:

  • If there will be little or no cross-linking between the domains, then they are basically distinct and should be separate domains.
  • If there will be some to moderate cross-linking, then consider a subdomain.
  • If there will be heavy interlinking, use a subsite.

I know you want to ask me to define “little”, “moderate” and “heavy”, but I can’t. It’s dependent on the site, how big it is, and so forth. If you only link once on a 10 page site, I’d call that “little”, if you linked on every page of a 10 page site, I’d call that “heavy”. After that, it gets a little vague. Worse, if I told you the exact ratio that worked right now, it would probably be different next month. Welcome to SEO.

Just ask yourself, would this link imply to a stranger a relationship between these two sites? If it was just a couple of links, then no. If it was an unusual number of links to one site compared to links to other sites, then it would be clear there was some sort of relationship, and if there were links on almost every page, then it would appear to be a strong relationship (or ownership). That’s what I mean when I say “little”, “moderate” and “heavy” linking – what relationship does there appear to be based on the number of links?

So How Do I Make a Nested Domain?

Easy. First you need to have a place to point it to. It can be a single  page, or a subsite. Then we need to point the domain at that spot.

What to watch for

You want to type in the domain name, but at the end of the day, you want it to resolve and display the subdirectory URL. If you don’t, you will not pass on PR, and you run the risk of duplicate content issues until the search engine figures things out. This indicates a proper redirect.

If you type in: www.mysite.com

it will take you to: www.myothersite.com/subsite/

AND the new URL will be displayed in the Address bar – not the original domain name. Then you know you’ve done it properly.

If you check the process with a HTTP Header Viewer, you will see a 301 (and often a temporary redirect page). If you see a 302 or 200, then you need to fix that, if possible.

I’ve seen instances where a 302 or even a metarefresh of 0 will work fine (the Calgary Herald site uses the metarefresh) but it’s NOT recommended, for all the reasons I’ve outlined in earlier articles in this series.


At this point, the exact method depends on how you current have the domain set up:

Just bought the domain

Then you go to your domain registrar’s DNS control panel and (if you are lucky) there is an option to do a “web forward” (Bulk Register, et al) or “domain name forwarding” (GoDaddy, et al). What you DO NOT want to do is choose any form of “masking” or “cloaking”.

Then you type in the URL path to where you want to have it resolve. Double check the results with a http header viewer and you are done.

Domain is Pointed at a Separate Account

This is a standard 301 redirect with a twist.

Apache Web Server

You can find detailed help with Apache 301 redirects here.

Instead of putting this in your .htaccess:

Redirect 301 / http://www.newdomain.com/

You put this:

Redirect 301 / http://www.newdomain.com/subsite/

WARNING: If you do this, ALL domains on that account will be redirected – not just one. If you have multiple domains pointed at an account for redirection, and only want one to be forwarded to the subsite, you need to create a NEW account to do so. One account, one redirect location, as far as domains are concerned.

Internet Information Server – IIS

You can find detailed help with IIS redirects here.

Just as with the Apache server, the rule for domains is one redirect per account. If you want most of your domains redirected to one place, but one redirected to another, you need to create a second account for it.

The process is exactly the same as a normal redirection except that you put in the URL path to the subdomain.

Domain is pointed at root

In this case, you have a domain “parked” on the root, along with the main domain. No problem.

First, remove the park. Either go to the control panel of your domain registrars DNS and do a webforward, as above in the “Just Bought The Domain” section, or if that’s not available to you, create a new account and point the domain there.

Then use the the information in the Domain is Pointed at a Separate Account section.


GeoLocation and Subdirectories

The problem with using a 301 to redirect a ccTLD domain to a subsite dedicated to that country is that the 301 tells the search engine that the old domain (the ccTLD) is no good anymore. That defeats the purpose, in this case.

In this case, you would use a 302 redirect to the appropriate subsite, not a 301. This keeps your original ccTLD active and indexed, allowing the search engine to apply a country to the pages.

Remember to use relative links for this subdirectory, not absolute (or if you use absolute, make sure you use the ccTLD in the URL).

Alternatively, if your DNS control panel allows it, you can “park” the ccTLD on the subdirectory using the CNAME function. Be very careful – it’s easy to set up an infinite loop with a CNAME unless you are careful. Use only one for any given target account unless you really know what you are doing.


Redirecting to a subdirectory is easy – it’s exactly the same as doing a standard redirect, except you define a longer destination URL that includes the final destination.

The difficultly comes before this, when deciding whether to use a subdomain, separate site, or subsite.

Next: Redirects and Error Pages

Main Article

Detailed Technical Information

Specific Scenarios and How To Deal With Them

Unless otherwise noted, all articles written by Ian McAnerin, BASc, LLB. Copyright © 2002-2004 All Rights Reserved. Permission must be specifically granted in writing for use or reprinting anywhere but on this site, but we do allow it and don’t charge for it, other than a backlink. Contact Us for more information.

301 Redirect Add Domain

Adding Domain’s for SEOs

I have several domain names and I want them all to point to the same site while keeping all the link popularity.

I’ve already outlined the theory and basics in the previous articles, so in this article you are going to get a nice, easy checklist.

301 Redirect Checklist

  1. Set up a new web hosting account, different from the one your current site is on. This account can be blank – no need for a website or content in it. It doesn’t matter if it’s on the same server (or even IP address). But it does have to be a separate account.
  2. Go to all your secondary domains that you want to forward, and point them at this second account. If any are currently pointing at your main site, move them to the second account.
    1. You can usually do this by going to your domain registrars control panel and changing the name servers to match the ones used by the new account.
    2. Then you go to the new account’s nameservers and resolve them to the website account IP
    3. If it’s a straight IP hosting, you are done (though it’s a waste of an IP). If it’s a shared IP, then go to the account and make sure that the host headers for the account respond to the new domain.
  3. To be clear, only ONE domain should resolve directly to the main account/site – the main domain. All of the rest should resolve to the secondary one.
  4. You should now have your main site with only your main domain on it. You also have a second account with all the other domains pointing at it. If that’s not the case go back and fix it.
  5. Now we want to tell a visitor (including a search engine) that all domains pointing at the second account are actually supposed to be permanently pointing at the main site, which is where the real website it. We do this using a 301 Redirect. You can find detailed instructions on how to do this for each of these 2 common scenarios here:
    1. If you are on Apache and have access to the .htaccess
    2. If you are on IIS and have access to the control panel
  6. Test the redirect using a HTTP Header viewer and tying in a redirected domain. You should see a “301 Error” in the case of IIS or “301 Moved Permanently” in the case of Apache. If you see “302 Found” you did it wrong. If you do the header check on the main domain, you will see a direct return code of “200 OK“, if you did it right.
  7. Done.

Diagram of a 301 Redirect

Example of a 301 Redirect



Basically, you are attempting to accomplish the diagram above. The visitor must go to a separate site and be told that you have moved permanently to a new one (i.e. 301) or it won’t pass on PR or link popularity properly.


Next: Assigning a domain name to a sub-directory

Main Article

Detailed Technical Information

Specific Scenarios and How To Deal With Them

Unless otherwise noted, all articles written by Ian McAnerin, BASc, LLB. Copyright © 2002-2004 All Rights Reserved. Permission must be specifically granted in writing for use or reprinting anywhere but on this site, but we do allow it and don’t charge for it, other than a backlink. Contact Us for more information.

301 Redirect Geolocation

Should SEOs Redirect or Park For Geolocation?

Geolocation is the process of associating a geographic area (usually a country) to a website or website page. This is done in order to help search engines provide results that are not only relevant to a searchers keyword, but also location.

For example, there are certain professions, like lawyers, that are restricted to geographic locations – a lawyer from Poland probably will not be helpful to a searcher in South Africa, regardless of how well the Polish lawyers website is optimized. Likewise, many people prefer to buy from vendors that are based in their own country – not only is shipping not as much of a concern, but local consumer protection laws are more likely to be helpful if their is a problem.


This refers to Country Code Top Level Domain. Normal TLD’s such as .com, .net, and .org refer to they type of website the domain belongs to (commercial, network, or organization), whereas a ccTLD refers to where the domain belongs – ie a country. Common examples include Canada (.ca) UK (.co.uk) France (.fr) and so forth. These codes are assigned by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
The act of assigning a geographic location to a website or webpage.


Incoming back links (IBL’s) that point from another website to yours, where that other website has a specific country code associated with it. For example, a link from a German website would be a ccLink, where a link from a normal .com with no country geolocated to it would be considered a normal link. If a site gets enough ccLinks related to a specific country pointing to it, it will often be assumed to be relevant to that country by some search engines.

IP Geolocation

In late 2003, I wrote a fairly well received article called “Only In Canada, Eh?” which outlined several issues and possible solutions regarding geolocation. However, it’s now late 2005 and the article is starting to show it’s age. The search engines have not stood still in the interim, and there are more rules to work with. A fairly complete discussion of the changes can be found at the High Rankings Forum in a thread called: “mcanerin – Only in Canada, Eh?“. This article hopes to summarize that thread and to clarify some parts of it, especially related to redirects and parks.

The main conclusion of the original article was that it would be best to host your website on an IP address in your country. This allows Google to associate your website with a specific country easily, regardless of what it’s domain extension is. This is still true today, but there are other considerations.

Other Search Engines Don’t Use IP Geolocation

Google is the only major search engine currently that uses IP address for geolocation. The reason that Yahoo won’t is quite simple – they know very well that many people host websites outside of their own country. As a matter of fact, Yahoo hosts websites from all over the world, and since it’s IP’s are US, following Google’s IP focussed method would not accurately reflect the reality that Yahoo knows is going one. Likewise, the folks at ASK are well aware that the preferred hosting location for large Chinese websites is Japan. Google’s IP fixation is apparently more due to a lack of experience outside of the US than an accurate reflection of the realities of web hosting in the rest of the world.

The non-Google search engines use 2 methods of discovering what area a web site is relevant to: 1) the ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) and 2) link analysis – they assume that if a very large number of German websites link to you, that you must be relevant to Germans, regardless of your hosting location.

Geographic Metatags and GeoTags

A lot of people haven’t heard of Gigablast, which is too bad, as it’s a nice search engine. Gigablast is different from most search engines in that it actually indexes metatags, and lets you search for results using those metatags. It’s the only major search engine that actually uses Geolocation Metatags, which look like this:

<meta name=”zipcode”        content=”87112,87113,87114″>
<meta name=”city”           content=”albuquerque, abq, rio rancho”>
<meta name=”state”          content=”new mexico”>
<meta name=”country”        content=”usa, united states of america”>

If you want to experiment with geographic metatags, you can use my free Metatag Generator to do so. There is another option called GeoTags, which actually incorporates latitude and longitude information, as well. Unfortunately, it’s not well supported at all.

For now, geographic metatags don’t work with the big 4 search engines, and I don’t really expect that to change in the near future, so they are interesting, but not practical at this point.


Ok, I just made that term up. For the purposes of this discussion, ccLinks (Country Context Links) are incoming backlinks (IBL’s) that the search engine in question considers to be relevant for a particular country. So, for example, if my webpage is considered by Yahoo to be a “Canadian” page, and I link to you, then Yahoo will receive a hint that you are of interest to a Canadian.

If Yahoo get’s enough of these from other Canadian sites, they will eventually come to the conclusion that this site is somehow relevant to Canadians. Notice that it’s not necessarily assuming that it’s a Canadian site, but that Canadians would consider it relevant, which may be a better metric anyway.

So it’s possible to get your .com, US hosted site considered to be relevant to the UK if you have enough UK relevant sites (ccLinks) pointing to it. This won’t work on Google at this time, but does work on Yahoo, MSN and Ask. This of course can cause issues if you somehow buy/trade a whole bunch of links to your site from Russian link farms, of course.

Further, I believe from testing that each page can only have one country associated with it. In theory, you would have 20 pages on your site all considered belonging to 20 different countries. In theory. In practice, it’s something to be cautious about while link building – you want to focus on ccLinks that are from your target country as much as possible. Which should be no surprise since presumably that’s part of relevant link building.

ccTLD – The Most Accurate Method

Currently, the best way to make sure that a website is geolocated for a specific area is to make sure it has a ccTLD (Country Code Top Level Domain) for that location. For example, if you wanted to make sure that your website was considered relevant to Canadians, you would make sure that it had a .ca domain extension.

This works very well in all the search engines today, including Google. It’s simple and clear.

But there are problems. First, many people already have a well-branded .com site. Second, some countries make it very difficult to get a domain appropriate to that country unless you are incorporated or a citizen there, which can be an issue if you are a multinational corporation, or a travel company that is from the destination location but is marketing to the users location.

So What’s This Have To Do With Redirects?

Good question. The answer is that one of the most common use for domain redirects is geolocation using ccTLD’s. If you have a .com and want to show up as a country specific site, your best and easiest method of doing so is to use a ccTLD and associating it with the .comwebsite. You can do this by using redirects. I will use .com as the example from now on, but the information below also refers to .net, .org, and other non-country specific domains.

Geolocation is one of the few instances where I recommend a 302 or park instead of a 301.

Scenario 1

I have an existing .com site and I just bought a ccTLD. I want to have the .com website associated with that country.

Answer 1: Use a 302 redirect from the ccTLD to the .com. Create a second account and point the ccTLD to it. Then redirect using a 302 from that account to the .com account.

This tells the search engine that your ccTLD is the “real” domain and that it’s being temporarily redirected to the .com. The search engine will index the .com, but keep the  ccTLD as the “original” domain. In short, the .com won’t be considered. If you pointed the .com to the ccTLS with a 302, the .com would be kept and you would lose the benefit.

The problem with using a 302 redirect is that it applies on a page by page basis, which is good if you want certain pages of your site to be associated with different countries, but harder when you want the whole site to be associated. In this case, you would need to create a sitemap with the ccTLD coded as an absolute (not relative) link to each page of your site you wanted indexed as belonging to the country.

Answer 2: Park the ccTLD directly on the .com. This associates BOTH domains to the site. Since one is a ccTLD, the site will be considered geolocated. Remember that if you do it this way it may take awhile for the search engine to figure out that this is really the same site, so for a while you will split your link popularity between the 2 domains, until they are merged. This also creates a potential duplication issue during this period.

The good news is that if you use relative links, then usually both domains will eventually be indexed for each page, and your whole site will be considered associated with the ccTLD. If you don’t want this, you will have to control it using absolute links or 302 redirects.

Scenario 2

I have a ccTLD website, but I also want to add my new .com onto it without messing anything up.

Answer: In this case, you would do a 301 redirect (not a 302) from the .com domain to the ccTLD. This tells the search engine to pass on all link popularity to the ccTLD, and to not consider the .com as the “proper” website.

Important Step for All Geolocation Redirect Scenarios

In all of the cases above, you need to do link building to the ccTLD. If you only do link building to the .com, there will be no opportunity for a search engine to index or know about the ccTLD. In view of the ccLinks issue that Yahoo, MSN and Ask use, I strongly recommend that you do as much ccLinking to the ccTLD as possible.

Geolocation Spidering Issues

Remember when I said that every page has it’s own country potentially linked to it? Each page can only have ONE country linked to it.

How would that be accomplished? Well, the simple method would be to consider all the pages under the ccTLD domain to be long to that ccTLD. Makes sense, right?

Well, it’s a little more complicated than that. You see, most sites use relative links within them. Some use absolute. Whether or not you use relative or absolute links can have a difference on whether or not your websites pages are considered geolocated or not.

Imagine that I point mcanerin.ca at mcanerin.com using a 302. In reality, what I’m doing is allowing the .ca domain to resolve any webpage on the site. But I’m not necessarily actually resolving all those pages.

Let’s say that a spider follows a link to mcanerin.ca to the default page of my website. Now, what country is going to be associated with that page? Why, Canada, of course. Now, let’s say that there is a link on that page that points to mcanerin.com/tools.htm. What country will that page be associated with? Nothing, really. Because the link to it is using the .com extension, not the .ca one!

That’s one of the dangers using an absolute link within your website regarding geolocation. The absolute link takes precedence over the previous redirect. Now, if the link had just been to /tools.htm, then the spider would have followed that relative to the .ca domain it was currently in and the page would have been associated with Canada in that case.

One use for absolute links within geolocation is the use of a geolocation sitemap. This is an ordinary sitemap to your site, but with 2 exceptions: 1) it’s pointed to with at least one (preferably many) absolute links using the ccTLD, and 2) it contains a list of all the pages in the site that you wish associated with the ccTLD listed using absolute ccTLD links.

In short, it points to every page using the ccTLD in the link, thus associating that ccTLD to each of those pages.

If you don’t do this, or alternatively do a lot of link building with the ccTLD and then use relative links throughout the site, you risk having only your home page, and maybe one or two others, being associated with the country, rather than your whole site, unless you use parking.


Geolocation can be a tricky area. I specialize in it and sometimes find it confusing. The key is to remember that each page is treated separately, and to follow the geolocation. Also, remember that a 301 throws away the old and keeps the new, a 302 keeps the old and ignores the new, and a park keeps both. If you keep these things clear in your head while you plan it out, you’ll get through it fairly easily.

Copyright Law and SEO Part 3

Copyright Law and SEO Part 3

Sample DMCA Notifications, in HTML and MS Word Format.

DMCA Notification Criteria

A Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) notification must contain certain information legally, and each ISP and Search Engine has slightly different rules as to what they accept and how they accept it. Since it is a legal document, not only is the content very important, but also the manner of delivery. When you are using the templates below, pay careful attention to the delivery method and signature requirements – they are different for each company.

You can Download a PDF version of the DMCA from the Library of Congress website and look at the information yourself. Another excellent resource is the Chilling Effects website.

If you haven’t already, I also suggest you also read the first 2 parts to this series:

In general, you need to:

  • Send the notification to the correct party.
  • Send it using the correct delivery method (ie fax, email, registered mail).
  • Clearly identify the date and jurisdiction (your location).
  • Clearly identify yourself and your website.
  • Clearly identify the copyright violator.
  • Clearly outline the copyright violations using searches, screenshots, and so forth.
  • Demand removal of the offending material.
  • Attest that you are the owner of the copyright and send it’s registration (if you registered it).

Sample DMCA Template Forms

Search Engines

Google DMCA – MS Word Document (32k)

MSN DMCA – MS Word Document (32k)

Yahoo DMCA – MS Word Document (32k)

Other Parties

ISP DMCA – MS Word Document (38k)

Unless otherwise noted, all articles written by Ian McAnerin, BASc, LLB. Copyright © 2004 All Rights Reserved. Permission must be specifically granted in writing for use or reprinting anywhere but on this site, but we do allow it and don’t charge for it, other than a backlink. Contact Us for more information.

Copyright Law and SEO Part 2

Copyright Law and SEO Part 2

What protection do you or your client have in the face of content theft? What can you do to prevent it, and what remedies are available?
In a previous copyright article, I described what copyright is and how it applies to SEO, and why it’s a very good idea to protect your content rights. But what do you do when someone ignores your carefully crafted copyright notice and steals your stuff anyway?

This is where life gets interesting — enforcing your copyright can be a scary issue. One of the questions I hear most often is “What happens if it costs more to sue than you might win?” Or worse – “What happens if you sue and lose?”

Let me preface the rest of this article by saying that what is or isn’t open to a successful lawsuit can vary depending on the circumstances, and you should always have a lawyer look at the actual content involved before going anywhere near a courtroom. There is an old legal maxim that says “A man who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client.”

Having said that, there are 2 venues to enforce your copyrights as an SEO, Webmaster, or content creator: the courts, and the search engines. Yes, that’s right, the search engines. All the major search engines will support a copyright holder against an infringer, and there is nothing like the sense of satisfaction you can get when the infringer is told to stop stealing your content or they will no longer be in the Google or Yahoo databases because of it. Frankly, I think it’s more effective than clogging the courts.

With both tactics, the first step is the same. If you or the infringer are in the US, get your copyright legally registered:
www.copyright.gov. You forgot to register? That’s okay – you can register up to 5 years after you create the content. You are in a much better position if you registered before the infringement, but in order to show up in a court you need some sort of paperwork saying you have a copyright. It’s cheap – only $30. Note that this is not strictly required for the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), but I strongly advise getting it anyway.

I suggest registering your whole site at least once per year, and after every major revision. The chances are that even if you are constantly editing your site, the infringer will steal something that hasn’t changed, and then you are protected as best as you can be.

For non-US companies and citizens, the registration of a copyright in the US is almost always supported by your country under the Berne Convention. Since most jurisdictions don’t have special advantages to registration like the US does, I recommend registering in the US in order to be able to sue in a US court, since you will get the right to sue in your local jurisdiction automatically in most cases anyway.

Once you have this you can go to the search engine(s) that the infringer is showing up in and fill out their DMCA notification. You will be asked for contact information, a statement saying that you own the copyright in question, a description of what search results are showing the infringing content, and a few other things. You then fax it off (or mail it) to the search engine as per their instructions. I would always send a copy of your registered copyright, as well. I have Sample DMCA Templates available for you to download, just don’t sell them, please!

The search engine will send off notification to the domain owner in question. There’s nothing scarier for most people than getting this email from the Google legal department. If they don’t respond or can’t provide evidence to the contrary, they’ll get yanked from the search engine results pages (SERPs).

The DMCA has other uses too. You can give notification to the offending website’s host and request that the site be removed, and you can show it to directories (especially DMOZ) and they will usually remove the offending site. There are endless possibilities that don’t require a courtroom.

If you can prove that you lost money due to the infringement, or if it was a particularly vile and obnoxious infringement, you can also go to court. This is where spending that $30 for registration comes into play. You cannot show up without it. If you were smart and had registered the copyright before the infringement happened, you can even get statutory damages without needing to prove a specific loss, which is very handy because it’s hard to measure in most cases. I would strongly recommend obtaining an intellectual property lawyer at this point, as well.

Search Engines to Report Copyright Infringements to



MSN – Microsoft:

AOL/Open Directory:




This article was first published in the High Rankings newsletter

Go To Copyright Law and SEO Part 3

Unless otherwise noted, all articles written by Ian McAnerin, BASc, LLB. Copyright © 2004 All Rights Reserved. Permission must be specifically granted in writing for use or reprinting anywhere but on this site, but we do allow it and don’t charge for it, other than a backlink. Contact Us for more information.